Su Jung Hwang 1,2, Hyeung-geun Park 3, Yohan Park 1,2,* and Hyo-Jong Lee1,2,*
1 College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, and
2 u-Healthcare and Anti-aging Reearch Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749;
3 Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
Previously, we reported that α-quaternary chiral lactam derivatives have broad spectrum anticancer activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its relevance are largely unknown. In the present study, we report progress on α-quaternary chiral lactam analogues that address this, focusing on the novel analogue YH-304 as a candidate to broadly target human cancer cells. The effect of YH-304 on cell transformation was assessed by clonogenic assay in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs) A549 and 226B. Proapoptotic activity of YH-304 was determined by TUNEL assay and cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9, and Bax as markers for apoptosis. The p53-dependency and therapeutic spectrum of YH-304 was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR, and cell viability assays in cells expressing endogenous wild or mutant p53. The effect of YH-304 on angiogenesis in vivo was examined by bFGF-mediated angiogenesis assay in zebrafish. Finally, the effect of YH-304 on AKT and ERK activation (phosphorylation) as a putative mechanism underlying the effect of YH-304 on bFGF-mediated angiogenesis was assessed using western blotting. We found that YH-304 significantly decreases the colony-forming activities of both A549 and 226B cells, inducing cellular apoptosis. Unlike nutlin-3 (p53 pathway activator), YH-304 did not affect the expression levels of p53 and its target gene such as p21 and thus showed p53-independent anticancer activity with broad spectrum. In addition, YH-304 inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo through mediating AKT and ERK signaling pathway, which plays an important role in bFGF activation and angiogenesis. Taken together, our data indicate that YH-304 may represent a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer in a p53-independent manner.
Int. J. Oncol. 2016, 49, 2480.